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The division of labor refers to the number of different tasks in which the work necessary for the production of a good or service is distributed, tasks that must be performed by different workers specialized in each one of them.
For Smith the very purpose of economics was to know the laws that determined the wealth of nations, and in that effort defended the thesis of the laissez faire – laissez passer in which resources would go to the sectors that presented the most attractions for the Producers in this way the production of an economy would be determined by the requirements of the market, also said that the optimization of productivity of a company was related to the correct gear of the processes of specialization of the workforce. This specialization known as division of labor would depend on the kind of product being manufactured.
Modern economies are increasingly focused on increasing production through efficiency, so that to achieve a determined activity efficiently, it becomes increasingly necessary to achieve the specialization of activities.
Adam Smith promised to demonstrate how to increase the wealth of nations, and one of the answers he offered was the “division of labor”, which consists of the specialization and cooperation of the labor forces in different tasks and roles with the aim of Improve efficiency.
He said that thanks to the division of labor saved time, production increased more and more in less time because the worker did not have to constantly change tools, also saved capital since each worker did not have to have all the tools Only those necessary for the function it performed. Smith stated that through the division of labor each worker develops more skill and skill in his task, those skilled workers were more likely to invent devices or machines that facilitate or improve the particular task they perform daily. In addition Smith believed that workers, rather than engineers, are often the ones who propel inventions.
There are several characteristics of the division of labor that allow, through this, to increase the production of society in general, taking advantage of all the capabilities of the worker and available resources, which in many cases are scarce.
The first characteristic is the difference of capacities: Each person own characteristics that allow him to be better in some activities than in others. The division of labor allows people to take care of that activity in which they are good and do not waste time and effort doing other activities that other people could do better.
The second characteristic is learning through experience: Assuming that there are two people with the same abilities, dedicating a person to an activity makes that person become a specialist in carrying it out, because the fact that he or she deals In that single task allows him to develop skills and discover better techniques that simplify the work, which would not happen if that person also took care of other activities (it would be something like “practice makes perfect”).
The third characteristic is time saving: The fact that a worker is permanently dedicated to a single task avoids wasting time by moving from one job to another.
However, in spite of the great benefits that a division of labor gave to a country, Smith considered that this was the main cause of a large group of the population to idiocy, having to do very mechanical work. For this reason Smith raises the importance of the State encouraging education and religion as a way to mitigate this evil caused.
Bringing a division of labor to excess can also be detrimental. The fact that a person performs a single task in his work can make it become monotonous and boring and stop making sense. In these cases the question could be asked: is the economy at the service of man, or is man at the service of the economy ?, since this excessive specialization does not allow the development of the person. Many companies are now aware of this problem and are promoting programs of periodic rotation of work, greater flexibility and participation of workers in their activities

Interdependence is another problem that must be analyzed. The fact that a worker or a company specializes in a specific task means that, in order to achieve a complete end result (a product, etc.), the work of other workers or companies that do the part that Corresponds. This causes that, if for some reason, any of the companies or workers fails in their task, the work of those who were related to this also be harmed, therefore, none of them would have a real control over their activity.

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