Communism is a form of social, political and economic organization, which seeks the elimination of social classes, as well as the suppression of private property, delivering the goods of production to the working classes and, lastly, the inexistence of the State.
Communism is a political movement that promotes the formation of a society without social classes, where the means of production are common property. This implies that the private ownership of such means would not exist, which would bring power to the working class.
This doctrine defends the collectivity of production goods to eliminate private property as expounded by the German thinkers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the nineteenth century. In this way, a control and planning of collective life, that is, of communities, must be born, leading to the elimination of private property and the difference of social classes, so that all people would be “equal “, Since to be all owners of the production of goods and services there would be no differences between them.
In its final aim, communism seeks the abolition of the State: if there is no private ownership of the means of production, there is no exploitation. Therefore, state organization would not be necessary.
Among the most outstanding works on communism is the book “The Capital” of Karl Marx, which has served as a basis for the different interpretations and evolutions of the concept, such as the one made by the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin who took charge of carrying Out the application of this term of its own interpretation to the Russian economy, which generated the so-called Leninism.
Marxism-Leninism is a political ideology formulated by Stalin, officially based on Marxism and Leninism. However, it is not simply the union of both ideologies but is a specific political ideology created to describe the line that Stalin implanted in the CPSU and the Comintern. It also contains deviations from both Marxism and Leninism, such as the concept of socialism in one country. There is no agreement among historians as to whether Stalin actually followed the principles of Marx and Lenin.
The aim of Marxism-Leninism is to create a one-party state that has total control over the economy. According to Marxism-Leninism, this state reflects the concept of socialism (means of production controlled by society), which eventually developed communism. Other communist and Marxist tendencies do not agree: they argue that Marxist-Leninist states did indeed form state capitalism. Ultimately, these tendencies conclude that Marxism-Leninism is neither Marxism, nor Leninism, nor the union of both; But an artificial term created to justify what they consider the ideological distortion of Stalin, the CPSU and the Comintern.
Communism has received criticism from different sectors. There are those who consider that classless society is impossible (some group will always have power, in the case of communism, they would be bureaucrats). On the other hand, many believe that capitalism and its desire for profit is the only system that promotes economic development.
The Marxist and socialist critique of Leninism, on the other hand, considers that Marx used the terms socialism and communism indiscriminately to refer to both phases, that the first phase excludes the dictatorship of the proletariat, and that the dictatorship of the proletariat cannot be the means of organization Of the socialist or communist economy: the State as an organ of political repression cannot control the means of production if the bourgeoisie has already been entirely expropriated, since this domain would imply that there can exist a state without social classes, that the dictatorship is politically exercised And that even the dictatorship (as political violence and even one-person violence) is used not only for representation but even for the internal military organization of the proletarian class, with socialism being understood as a collectivism of an authoritarian and even dictatorially organized state By a head. For them, if in the first phase the policy of the transition period is continued, the use of collective enterprises would continue to serve a political function of the communist party and not of the proletariat, which would be a state capitalism or a bureaucratic collectivism.
Throughout history there have been various communist governments; Undoubtedly one of those who has stood out negatively for its genocidal policies and unconstitutional programs was the regime of Nicolae Ceausescu, who ruled Romania between 1945 and 1989 and was violently overthrown by the popular revolution; Romania was the only country in Eastern Europe that managed to get rid of its leader through force.
During the mandate of Nicolae Ceausescu the poorest classes were the poor, who, condemned to hunger, cold, lack of health resources and education suffered a devastating annihilation; In addition, policies of extermination were implemented to all who opposed the regime, torturing them and killing them indiscriminately.
Although often used as synonyms, it must be borne in mind that communism and socialism are not the same.
In some occasions it has been wanted to confuse or make references to these concepts as equals, however, this is certainly not correct. While communism seeks the elimination of private property as well as the expropriation of the production of goods and services, which leads to state control of these to define what the needs of citizens, and then produce and distribute such goods, thus leading To a centralism and dependence on individuals and citizens directly from the State, Socialism is more a doctrine that does not entail such radical changes but to the collective administrative control of the production systems together with the control of the structures of the state by the citizens, What can be called a plan of economy, which is based on centralism and dependence on economic activities by the State.
Whereas communism proposes radical measures for the expropriation of individual property to be exploited by the state and its consequences are real; Socialism is a doctrine, it does not propose effective measures of change but a plan of economic economy that is based on the democratic possession and the collective administrative control of the systems of production, next to the control of the political structures on the part of the citizens.
Both ideologies refer and are closely related to the theme of community and the opposition to the capitalist system and exploitation of the working class, communism developed by the theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels while socialism is based more on ideas developed by Henri de Saint-Simon and Charles Fourier.
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